official labor productivity measure has grown 1% per year on average — a rate typically associated with economic recessions rather than expansions. As part of a drive to develop their digital economies and close the gap with their peers in the Gulf, the Maghreb countries have introduced important institutional initiatives in recent years.
Building on its significant investments in ICT infrastructure, Algeria has been trying to foster ICT start-up clusters and, through the Algiers Smart City initiative, improve urban living standards in its capital using digital solutions. At 112, the average number of mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 people in the MENA region is slightly above that of the global average. There is significant divergence across the region, however , with Turkey lagging at 96 and the UAE far ahead at 211. The North African countries, for their part, are somewhat above the global average, with Egypt at 106 and the Maghreb countries clustered in the low 120s. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait are at similar levels, while others in the Gulf have made more progress, notably Qatar, Oman and Bahrain.
Service industries that were most integrated with global demand accounted for more than 75 percent of job gains in 2008, many of which were created by exports. In the 2000s, most U. S. growth was attributable to the service, knowledge and advanced manufacturing sectors. Strategy and Behaviors in the Digital Economy is a collection of reviewed and relevant research chapters, offering a comprehensive overview of recent developments in the field of Business, Management and Economics.
All are assumed to incorporate some type of digital components; not every conceivable area is listed. When Facebook made their case to regulators to approve the Instagram acquisition, they said Instagram was not a competitor, it was a photo-sharing site for smartphones. “It takes years of education to reach a conclusion this absurd; every teenager knew that Instagram was taking users from Facebook, ” says Tim Wu, a frequent critic of tech monopolies and author of The Curse of Bigness. If CNBC is selling its audience of financial readers at a cost of $30, and the Times can copy CNBC’s readers and their reading patterns, then the Times could theoretically undercut CNBC and sell ads targeted to CNBC financial readers for, say, $20 instead of $30. Typically, your IP address, your location, and the URL of the page you are on are swiped from your browser without your explicit knowledge, and shared with advertising companies that run these ad auctions. The goal, of course, is to build as specific a portrait about you as possible—by linking your device with your identity—and cookies are a common tool for doing so. The views expressed on BRINK are those of the individual contributors and not necessarily the views of Marsh & McLennan or any of its businesses.
Moreover, once the initial investment is made in establishing a digital platform, the cost of each new client is minimal compared to the marginal cost of attracting those same clients via the rollout of physical infrastructure. Indeed, in Kenya the number of ATMs in operation has dropped by about a third, as more of the population has switched to using mobile money. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a varied workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U. S.
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On the other hand, chairside intraoral imaging and fabrication of indirect restorations by the clinician have been available for more than 25 years. However, even with new competition driving faster innovation, the price remains high, and adoption has not yet reached early majority. Each area of digital dentistry has advantages in comparison to the conventional device or technique. Yet, some of the advantages may be diminished by the increased cost or technique sensitivity. Some new technologies are “disruptive” in nature and can cause rapid change (see Fig. 1). The introduction of full zirconia crowns and other monolithic crowns (IPS e. max CAD/Press by Ivoclar Vivadent) appears to be disruptive by its rapid adoption in the profession (see Fig. 2).